Mostly Harmless: Design for digital with a conscience

A presentation at Feira do Polo Digital de Manaus in November 2018 in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil by Per Axbom

Slide 1

Slide 1

Mostly Harmless Design for digital with a conscience Per Axbom axbom.eu/feirapdmanaus

Slide 2

Slide 2

”So you married into a family of traitors?!” (Real comment to my wife a few weeks after she married me.) @axbom

Slide 3

Slide 3

Garrincha Axbom 1958 World Cup final in Sweden @axbom

Slide 4

Slide 4

Nutmeg • Tunnel Caneta • Janelinha • Rolinho • Ovinho @axbom

Slide 5

Slide 5

@axbom

Slide 6

Slide 6

@axbom

Slide 7

Slide 7

The Mercator map projection @axbom

Slide 8

Slide 8

@axbom

Slide 9

Slide 9

@axbom

Slide 10

Slide 10

@axbom

Slide 11

Slide 11

@axbom

Slide 12

Slide 12

@axbom

Slide 13

Slide 13

@axbom

Slide 14

Slide 14

@axbom

Slide 15

Slide 15

@axbom

Slide 16

Slide 16

The Authagraph map projection centered on Europe @axbom

Slide 17

Slide 17

@axbom

Slide 18

Slide 18

How much and tools @axbom u o y do trust we use the maps in ign s e ? d

Slide 19

Slide 19

@axbom

Slide 20

Slide 20

@axbom

Slide 21

Slide 21

Road space taken by 60 people on a bus @axbom on bicycles in cars

Slide 22

Slide 22

Road space taken by 60 people fossil-fuel cars @axbom electric cars autonomous cars

Slide 23

Slide 23

Ride sharing adds 2.6 vehicle miles to city traffic for every one mile of personal driving removed. That’s an increase of 160%. UberPOOL, Uber Express POOL, Lyft @axbom http://www.schallerconsult.com/rideservices/automobility.htm

Slide 24

Slide 24

Ride sharing adds 2.6 vehicle miles to city traffic for every one mile of personal driving removed. That’s an increase of 160%. Ride-sharing apps actually make traffic in cities worse. UberPOOL, Uber Express POOL, Lyft Optimising a broken system can make the system even more broken. @axbom http://www.schallerconsult.com/rideservices/automobility.htm

Slide 25

Slide 25

t e e m t o n s e o d d a o l p u o t t n a w u o y o t o h p e Th : e s u a c e b a i r e d e s our crit o l c e r a s e y e t c e j b • Su @axbom

Slide 26

Slide 26

@axbom

Slide 27

Slide 27

@axbom

Slide 28

Slide 28

@axbom

Slide 29

Slide 29

professional hair unprofessional hair @axbom https://www.iafrikan.com/2016/06/25/why-does-a-google-search-for-unprofessional-hair-showimages-of-black-women-including-michelle-obama-2/

Slide 30

Slide 30

https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing @axbom

Slide 31

Slide 31

@axbom

Slide 32

Slide 32

Come on @netflix, I don’t have kids!! Also, how would this feel if you lost a child or had trouble conceiving - no button here to remove it. @audreylouisa on Twitter @axbom

Slide 33

Slide 33

Gentle nudges are not so gentle when everyone is pushing you. @axbom

Slide 34

Slide 34

Loss aversion Anchoring Decoy effect Sunk cost fallacy Confirmation bias @axbom Expectation bias Bandwagon effect

Slide 35

Slide 35

@axbom

Slide 36

Slide 36

Bias is the tendency to have an opinion, or view, that is often without considering evidence and other information. Biases are a human trait, and can be a weakness. As designers we are not learning about human weaknesses so that we may exploit them. Our job is to remedy them. @axbom

Slide 37

Slide 37

@axbom

Slide 38

Slide 38

@axbom https://twitter.com/i_anic/status/1039127723388612609

Slide 39

Slide 39

A higher conversion rate is not equivalent to “better for the person” @axbom

Slide 40

Slide 40

Ask a psychiatrist @axbom

Slide 41

Slide 41

Someone is always trying to push you to do something. It’s a global experiment with non-consenting participants. @axbom

Slide 42

Slide 42

“UX is about putting people first” @axbom

Slide 43

Slide 43

Why do we keep messing up? @axbom

Slide 44

Slide 44

Right Wrong What we do D Wrong Right How we do it @axbom

Slide 45

Slide 45

Right Wrong What we do D Doing the wrong thing the wrong way Wrong Right How we do it @axbom

Slide 46

Slide 46

Right D Wrong What we do Doing the right thing the wrong way Doing the wrong thing the wrong way Wrong Right How we do it @axbom

Slide 47

Slide 47

Right Doing the right thing the right way D Wrong What we do Doing the right thing the wrong way Doing the wrong thing the wrong way Wrong Right How we do it @axbom

Slide 48

Slide 48

Right Doing the right thing the right way D Wrong What we do Doing the right thing the wrong way Doing the wrong thing the wrong way Doing the wrong thing the right way Wrong Right How we do it @axbom

Slide 49

Slide 49

With more efficient tools we can work much faster. @axbom

Slide 50

Slide 50

With more efficient tools we can work much faster. So a lot of people are getting much better at doing the wrong thing. @axbom

Slide 51

Slide 51

Raise your hand and take it down only when you hear a statement you do not agree with. ✓ I have lied. ✓ I have lied to someone I care about. ✓ My parents told me it is wrong to lie. ✓ I believe I will continue to lie. @axbom

Slide 52

Slide 52

Why we make bad decisions SELF-AWARENESS TIME RESILIENCE UNDERSTANDING HEALTH @axbom

Slide 53

Slide 53

Self-awareness You haven’t yet figured out if your behaviour aligns with your values @axbom

Slide 54

Slide 54

Time You aren’t given enough time @axbom

Slide 55

Slide 55

Resilience Other people’s expectations are steering your behaviour @axbom

Slide 56

Slide 56

Understanding You do not have a full understanding of the system at play @axbom

Slide 57

Slide 57

Health You are not taking care of yourself @axbom

Slide 58

Slide 58

You are too tired. You are letting others make decisions for you. You are putting too much trust in the tools you are working with. You are out of time. @axbom

Slide 59

Slide 59

@axbom

Slide 60

Slide 60

@axbom

Slide 61

Slide 61

@axbom

Slide 62

Slide 62

4 out of 20 users could not find the search function on the website. @axbom https://www.nngroup.com/articles/decision-framing-cognitive-bias-ux-pros/

Slide 63

Slide 63

4 out of 20 users could not find the search function on the website. 16 out of 20 users found the search function on the website. Practitioners who saw the finding described as the failure rate were 31% more likely to believe the design needed to be redesigned. @axbom https://www.nngroup.com/articles/decision-framing-cognitive-bias-ux-pros/

Slide 64

Slide 64

A loading time of 3 seconds or more leads to 40-50% of users abandoning their shopping cart. @axbom

Slide 65

Slide 65

A loading time of 3 seconds or more leads to 40-50% of users abandoning their shopping cart. A loading time of 2 seconds or less means X% buy stuff they don’t really want or need. @axbom

Slide 66

Slide 66

A loading time of 3 seconds or more leads to 40-50% of users abandoning their shopping cart. A loading time of 2 seconds or less means X% buy stuff they don’t really want or need. A loading time of 3 seconds or more allows X% to make a considered purchase decision. @axbom

Slide 67

Slide 67

How you frame the problem may indicate if you are humancentric or organization-centric. We must stop people from abandoning their shopping cart. @axbom We must assist people in making a relevant purchase-decision.

Slide 68

Slide 68

ALARMINGLY our current methods, processes, incentives, tools and general behavior provide little guidance for avoiding harm to humans. @axbom

Slide 69

Slide 69

We need better maps We need better maps @axbom

Slide 70

Slide 70

Ethics! @axbom

Slide 71

Slide 71

Trend number 9. Digital Ethics and privacy Consumers have an growing awareness of the value of their personal information, and they are increasingly concerned with how it’s being used by public and private entities. Enterprises that don’t pay attention are at risk of consumer backlash. Conversations regarding privacy must be grounded in ethics and trust. The conversation should move from “Are we compliant?” toward “Are we doing the right thing?” @axbom

Slide 72

Slide 72

Ethics Relativism - Absolutism Kantian ethics Situation ethics Utilitarianism Virtue ethics Intent @axbom Deontology Outcome

Slide 73

Slide 73

Ethics Altruism Asceticism Cognitivism Consequentialism Cynicism Relativism - Absolutism Kantian ethics Situation ethics Utilitarianism Deontology Egoism Epicureanism Ethical Naturalism Ethical Non-Naturalism Ethical Subjectivism Eudaimonism Hedonism @axbom Humanism Individualism Moral Absolutism Moral Anti-Realism Moral Nihilism Virtue ethics Intent Deontology Outcome Moral Realism Moral Relativism Moral Skepticism Moral Universalism Non-Cognitivism Utilitarianism Virtue Ethics

Slide 74

Slide 74

Ethics “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence then, is not an act, but a habit.” Aristotle @axbom

Slide 75

Slide 75

Ethics “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence then, is not an act, but a habit.” “Women are deformed males.” Aristotle @axbom “A proper wife should be as obedient as a slave.”

Slide 76

Slide 76

We talk a lot about empathy in design but we rarely talk about how empathy itself is prejudiced. Empathy is why we like family and friends and people like ourselves, and are skeptical about others. @axbom

Slide 77

Slide 77

@axbom

Slide 78

Slide 78

Ethics is not a great map if we can’t always trust it and have a hard time agreeing on what it means. @axbom

Slide 79

Slide 79

why? call for ethics @axbom why? people are being harmed why? the harm is invisible the harm isn’t evaluated

Slide 80

Slide 80

why? call for ethics why? people are being harmed why? the harm is invisible the harm isn’t evaluated Measure and evaluate how people are being harmed by your solutions. @axbom

Slide 81

Slide 81

PERSON 1: “Does my hair look good?” PERSON 2: (lying) “Yes.” PERSON 1: “Awesome; I’ll keep going to this new hairdresser I’ve found then.” Impact: Person 1 will keep having bad hair. @axbom

Slide 82

Slide 82

First we need to understand how communication between people works. @axbom

Slide 83

Slide 83

received message message sender encoder channel noise @axbom decoder receiver

Slide 84

Slide 84

received message message sender encoder channel noise FEEDBACK @axbom decoder receiver

Slide 85

Slide 85

design Communication is circular As a designer you need to enable and empower the circular properties of communication. You need knowledge to keep designing. listen @axbom

Slide 86

Slide 86

The longer the distance between sender and receiver, the more work you must put into enabling the feedback loop. @axbom

Slide 87

Slide 87

How do we actively listen for harm? @axbom

Slide 88

Slide 88

Understanding impact Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people on an individual or societal level. input output outcome impact investments and resources product/service provided immediate achievements medium/long-term consequences measured rarely measured cultural economic environmental health / well-being political scientific social technological A good way to avoid harm is to include impact risk assessment in your work. @axbom

Slide 89

Slide 89

PUSH NOTIFICATIONS @axbom INPUT OUTPUT The need is expressed Notifications built OUTCOME IMPACT Stress/Anxiety Notifications sent ‘False positives User reminded Lower work performance People act Concentration lapses on the Diminishing trust notification

Slide 90

Slide 90

ACTION A. Eat chocolate B. Work out C. Donate clothes D. Recycle @axbom OUTPUT OUTCOME IMPACT 1st order 2nd order 3rd order Energy boost Hungry again Addiction Exertion/pain Improved physiology Better at work Feel better, can buy new Cheap clothes for poor Repressed self-sufficiency Recycling space at home Visit recycling station regularly Waste reduced

Slide 91

Slide 91

@axbom https://qz.com/1042852/using-a-fitness-app-taught-me-the-scary-truth-about-why-privacy-settings-are-a-feminist-issue/

Slide 92

Slide 92

@axbom

Slide 93

Slide 93

@axbom https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/28/fitness-tracking-app-gives-away-location-of-secret-us-army-bases

Slide 94

Slide 94

WHO could be harmed? (traits) People who want to keep their location a secret WHAT could happen? (impact) Stalkers could find them and harass them / hurt them HOW harmful would that be?* MINOR MAJOR HOW much is our fault? MINOR MAJOR HOW likely is it to happen? MINOR HOW vulnerable is this group of people? MINOR @axbom MAJOR (burdened) MAJOR

Slide 95

Slide 95

@axbom

Slide 96

Slide 96

Makes things worse when people are excluded, ignored and don’t feel safe. So, not a great tool for listening. @axbom

Slide 97

Slide 97

We value your opinion! Would you be willing to answer a few questions? Yes No Online surveys are a terrible way of listening. Most people who find it difficult to answer online surveys are the marginalized, burdened people you are already ignoring. Online surveys give privileged people even more space. @axbom

Slide 98

Slide 98

Discover Define Develop Deliver Alastair Somerville: How do we design for divergence & diversity if convergence is the goal? @axbom https://medium.com/@acuity_design/how-do-we-design-for-divergence-diversity-if-convergence-is-the-goal-fb31e0946b6c

Slide 99

Slide 99

Most projects keep building for the average person. @axbom

Slide 100

Slide 100

”Let’s find something that is common for most people and build for that.” @axbom

Slide 101

Slide 101

Who? ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ @axbom Ability divergent Age disfavored Appearance disfavored Crime/distress endurer Ethnic minority Faith disfavored Gender disfavored Illness endurer Non-citizen Racism endurer Social class disfavored Sexuality disfavored What? ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ Environment Esteem Finance Health Privacy Relationships Safety Self-actualization Self-worth Social belonging How? ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ Dangerous defaults False assumptions False expectations Excluded by design External pressure Lack of choice Lack of knowledge Lack of understanding Sensory overload Time constraints

Slide 102

Slide 102

”unprofessional hair” Who? ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ @axbom Ability divergent Age disfavored Appearance disfavored Crime/distress endurer Ethnic minority Faith disfavored Gender disfavored Illness endurer Non-citizen Racism endurer Social class disfavored Sexuality disfavored What? ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ Environment Esteem Finance Health Privacy Relationships Safety Self-actualization Self-worth Social belonging How? ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ ▢ Dangerous defaults False assumptions False expectations Excluded by design External pressure Lack of choice Lack of knowledge Lack of understanding Sensory overload Time constraints out-of-control algorithms

Slide 103

Slide 103

The lack of crash test dummies with female body types means women are 70% more likely to be moderately injured in car crashes, 45% more likely to be seriously injured and 15% more likely to die. @axbom https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/female-dummy-makes-her-mark-on-male-dominated-crash-tests/2012/03/07/gIQANBLjaS_story.html?utm_term=.1c263f679e89

Slide 104

Slide 104

The lack of crash test dummies with female body types means women are 70% more likely to be moderately injured in car crashes, 45% more likely to be seriously injured and 15% more likely to die. When you design for average — marginalized and burdened people get hurt. @axbom https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/female-dummy-makes-her-mark-on-male-dominated-crash-tests/2012/03/07/gIQANBLjaS_story.html?utm_term=.1c263f679e89

Slide 105

Slide 105

People who are already burdened and unfairly marginalized are the ones who are most likely to be hurt by your design. Rational compassion can be considered a much more reliable guide to moral behavior than empathy. @axbom

Slide 106

Slide 106

We listen. @axbom

Slide 107

Slide 107

Technology is an enabler for communication between people and empowers humans. Unless we make it a disabler. This happens if we don’t find out if people are being harmed. And act on that information. @axbom

Slide 108

Slide 108

@axbom THE INCLUSIVE PANDA

Slide 109

Slide 109

THE INCLUSIVE PANDA @axbom (non-participants) excluded unwanted participants included

Slide 110

Slide 110

THE INCLUSIVE PANDA People who benefit from the solution but no effort is placed into designing for them. excluded unwanted participants included People who manage to use the solution anyway but could be thrown out any time. The people you are intentionally designing for, measuring and following up on. @axbom (non-participants) People you do not want using the solution. They could get hurt, or they could hurt others. People who manage to use the solution anyway, putting themselves and others at risk. A segment of the people you are intentionally designing for but who are still experiencing negative impact.

Slide 111

Slide 111

@axbom

Slide 112

Slide 112

@axbom

Slide 113

Slide 113

We should add pink cupcakes as a measure of calories burned when walking. @axbom Hang on, I’m concerned about the impact of this decision. I may be wrong, but….

Slide 114

Slide 114

@axbom Alternative paths Short term / Long term Addictive cycles Cost consideration The Other Story Reputation and trust

Slide 115

Slide 115

We say work with human-centric design. Ensuring human safety is our responsibility. It’s why we go to work. @axbom

Slide 116

Slide 116

We say work with human-centric design. Ensuring human safety is our responsibility. It’s why we go to work. If our profession is built on human safety and we are failing to deliver, then how do we claim our right to be taken seriously? @axbom

Slide 117

Slide 117

Let’s make sure our maps and tools can evaluate and identify negative impact. do the right thing @axbom 😀😁 ☺😐 😌😎

Slide 118

Slide 118

Let’s make sure our maps and tools can evaluate and identify negative impact. 😢 😢 😢 do the right thing 😢 @axbom 😢 😢 😀😁 ☺😐 😌😎

Slide 119

Slide 119

Let’s make sure our maps and tools can evaluate and identify negative impact. 😢 😢 😢 do the right thing 😢 @axbom 😢 😢 😀😁 ☺😐 😌😎

Slide 120

Slide 120

FORGET AVERAGE It’s listening to everyone that will make a difference @axbom

Slide 121

Slide 121

Start with YOU Understand your destination @axbom

Slide 122

Slide 122

Use the maps that will help you get there @axbom

Slide 123

Slide 123

Don’t be afraid to ask for help. Human’s best friend. @axbom

Slide 124

Slide 124

Listen. Explore. Agree. Do. Per Axbom per@axbom.se axbom.se @axbom axbom.eu/feirapdmanaus