The Imitation Game - studies in disability simulations

A presentation at #a11yTO Conference in October 2018 in Toronto, ON, Canada by Job van Achterberg

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The Imitation Game Studies in disability simulations 2018

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Job van Achterberg Tech lead, tenon.io @detonite Inclusive Design and Accessibility role=drinks 2018

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https://www.zorgenziekenhuis.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Blind-voor-1-dag-660x330.jpg 2018

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2018

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General Concepts in Full Scale Simulation: Getting Started Michael A. Seropian, MD, FRCPC Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2003 2018

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Simulation: “an attempt to mimic reality“ General Concepts in Full Scale Simulation: Getting Started Michael A. Seropian, MD, FRCPC Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2003 2018

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“Reality is truly a matter of perception. A fundamental assumption of simulation is that learning is enhanced when the environment seems realistic.“ General Concepts in Full Scale Simulation: Getting Started Michael A. Seropian, MD, FRCPC Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2003 2018

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Role-Playing vs. Role-Taking: An Appeal for Clarification Walter Coutu American Sociological Review, 1951 2018

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A simulation is an attempt to mimic reality in such a way that it is convincing on the sociological (how others perceive you) and psychological (how you perceive yourself) levels. 2018

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Helmet cover 2018

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Smoke-filled room https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=22xwKesD_jk (clipped) 2018

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Gas or wood fire https://www.dhtc.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/DHTC-Brandweer-480x250.jpg 2018

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Actors http://www.wleeman.nl/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/LeW_5D3_17025.jpg 2018

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Why? • Improvement / Measurement • Development • Training 2018

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2018

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The Psychology of Attitudes Alice Eagley and Shelly Chaiken Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993 2018

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Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex 2018

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Descartes’ Error Antonio Damasio 2005 Somatic Marker Hypothesis 2018

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Black Like Me John Howard Griffin 1969 https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51rd5llYEEL.SX308_BO1,204,203,200.jpg https://www.telegraph.co.uk/content/dam/books/johnhowardgriffin2.jpg?imwidth=450 2018

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The Influence of Role Playing on Opinion Change Irving L. Janis & Bert T. King, Yale University Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1954 2018

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Influence of Fantasy Ability on Attitude Change Through Role Playing Alan C. Elms, Southern Methodist University Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1966 2018

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“role playing resulted in greater mean positive attitude change than did simply listening to the role player's arguments.“ Influence of Fantasy Ability on Attitude Change Through Role Playing Alan C. Elms, Southern Methodist University Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1966 2018

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The Effects of Emotional Role Playing on Desire to Modify Smoking Habits Leon Mann, University of Melbourne, Australia Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1967 2018

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A Follow-Up Study on the LongTerm Effects of Emotional Role Playing Leon Mann (Harvard) and Irving L. Janis (Yale) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1968 2018

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Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity Erving Goffman, 1963 https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/ 417K2LICU1L.SX341_BO1,204,203,200.jpg 2018

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Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity “a process by which the reaction of others spoils normal identity“ https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/ 417K2LICU1L.SX341_BO1,204,203,200.jpg 2018

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Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity “I also learned that the cripple must be careful not to act differently from what people expect him to do. Above all they expect the cripple to be crippled; to be disabled and helpless: to be inferior to themselves, and they will become suspicious and insecure if the cripple falls short of these expectations. It is rather strange, but the cripple has to play the part of the cripple, just as many women have to be what the men expect them to be, just women; and the Negroes often have to act like clowns in front of the "superior" white race, so that the white man shall not be frightened by his black brother.“ https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/ 417K2LICU1L.SX341_BO1,204,203,200.jpg 2018

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Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity “I once knew a dwarf who was a very pathetic example of this, indeed. She was very small, about four feet tall, and she was extremely well educated. In front of people, however, she was very careful not to be anything other than "the dwarf," and she played the part of the fool with the same mocking laughter and the same quick, funny movements that have been the characteristics of fools ever since the royal courts of the Middle Ages. Only when she was among friends, she could throw away her cap and bells and dare to be the woman she really was: intelligent, sad, and very lonely.“ https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/ 417K2LICU1L.SX341_BO1,204,203,200.jpg 2018

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Emotional Role Playing, Attitude Change, and Attraction Towards a Disabled Person Gerald L. Clore & Katharine McMillan Jeffery University of Illinois Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972 2018

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“I am surprised what effect this had on me. I was alone the entire time, I saw no one that I knew, so perhaps this made me take it all very seriously. All I know is that my eyes filled up with tears coming back up alone in that elevator“ Emotional Role Playing, Attitude Change, and Attraction Towards a Disabled Person Gerald L. Clore & Katharine McMillan Jeffery University of Illinois Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972 2018

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“The looks that I received were very interesting and were consistently the same. People look out of the corner of their eyes and then a downward glance past my legs. They seem a bit embarrassed“ Emotional Role Playing, Attitude Change, and Attraction Towards a Disabled Person Gerald L. Clore & Katharine McMillan Jeffery University of Illinois Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972 2018

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“My arms had started to bother me, and it was hard to go in a straight line. When I got to the ramp at the union, I started to go up and realized I was never going to make it.“ Emotional Role Playing, Attitude Change, and Attraction Towards a Disabled Person Gerald L. Clore & Katharine McMillan Jeffery University of Illinois Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972 2018

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Empathy and Attitudes: Can Feeling for a Member of a Stigmatized Group Improve Feelings Towards the Group? C. Daniel Batson, Marina P. Polycarpou, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Heidi J. Imhoff, Erin C. Mitchener, Lori L. Bednar, Tricia R. Klein, & Loft Highberger University of Kansas Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997 2018

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“attitudes towards stigmatized groups are notoriously hard to change“ Empathy and Attitudes: Can Feeling for a Member of a Stigmatized Group Improve Feelings Towards the Group? C. Daniel Batson, Marina P. Polycarpou, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Heidi J. Imhoff, Erin C. Mitchener, Lori L. Bednar, Tricia R. Klein, & Loft Highberger University of Kansas Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997 2018

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“Only if the stereotype-inconsistent information is widely dispersed throughout the group, and we are made aware of this dispersion, is it likely to change our stereotype“ Empathy and Attitudes: Can Feeling for a Member of a Stigmatized Group Improve Feelings Towards the Group? C. Daniel Batson, Marina P. Polycarpou, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Heidi J. Imhoff, Erin C. Mitchener, Lori L. Bednar, Tricia R. Klein, & Loft Highberger University of Kansas Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997 2018

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Cognitive Processes in the Revision of Stereotypic Beliefs Reneé Weber and Jennifer Crocker Northwestern University Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1983 2018

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The Righteous Mind Jonathan Haidt 2013 The Rider and the Elephant 2018

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Does Perspective taking Increase or Decrease Stereotyping? The Role of Need for Cognitive Closure Shan Sun, Bin Zuo, Yang Wu & Fangfang Wen School of Psychology, Center for Social Psychology Research, Central China Normal University Personality and Individual Differences, 2016 2018

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Smarter Than We Think: When Our Brains Detect That We Are Biased Wim De Neys, Oshin Vartanian and Vinod Goel University of Leuven and York University Psychological Science, 2008 2018

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Anterior Cingulate Cortex Right Lateral Prefrontal Cortex 2018

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Does Perspective taking Increase or Decrease Stereotyping? The Role of Need for Cognitive Closure Shan Sun, Bin Zuo, Yang Wu & Fangfang Wen School of Psychology, Center for Social Psychology Research, Central China Normal University Personality and Individual Differences, 2016 2018

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Empathy and Attitudes: Can Feeling for a Member of a Stigmatized Group Improve Feelings Towards the Group? C. Daniel Batson, Marina P. Polycarpou, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Heidi J. Imhoff, Erin C. Mitchener, Lori L. Bednar, Tricia R. Klein, & Loft Highberger University of Kansas Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997 2018

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“Like the results reported by Clore and Jeffrey, our finding that an empathy-inducing listening perspective improved attitudes toward convicted murderers 1 to 2 weeks later suggests that the empathy-attitude effect is not as short-lived as we had feared. Apparently, it can outlive the empathic emotion itself.“ Empathy and Attitudes: Can Feeling for a Member of a Stigmatized Group Improve Feelings Towards the Group? C. Daniel Batson, Marina P. Polycarpou, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Heidi J. Imhoff, Erin C. Mitchener, Lori L. Bednar, Tricia R. Klein, & Loft Highberger University of Kansas Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997 2018

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“Our emotion-based approach to attitude change did not seem vulnerable to the subcategorization effects that often plague cognitive approaches, such as learning stereotype-inconsistent information about an individual group member.“ Empathy and Attitudes: Can Feeling for a Member of a Stigmatized Group Improve Feelings Towards the Group? C. Daniel Batson, Marina P. Polycarpou, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Heidi J. Imhoff, Erin C. Mitchener, Lori L. Bednar, Tricia R. Klein, & Loft Highberger University of Kansas Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997 2018

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The Coping Framework and Attitude Change: A Guide to Constructive Role Playing Beatrice A. Wright Rehabilitation Psychology, 1978 2018

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“My concern is that role-playing can enhance, not only understanding of some problems, but also pervasive pity and devaluation.“ The Coping Framework and Attitude Change: A Guide to Constructive Role Playing Beatrice A. Wright Rehabilitation Psychology, 1978 2018

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“Actually, feelings of inferiority, lack of confidence, and helplessness hardly need roleplaying, for these are common stereotypes of people with disabilities held by the outsider.“ The Coping Framework and Attitude Change: A Guide to Constructive Role Playing Beatrice A. Wright Rehabilitation Psychology, 1978 2018

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Constructively Guided Role-Playing The Coping Framework and Attitude Change: A Guide to Constructive Role Playing Beatrice A. Wright Rehabilitation Psychology, 1978 2018

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• Assertive role-playing • Role-reversal The Coping Framework and Attitude Change: A Guide to Constructive Role Playing Beatrice A. Wright Rehabilitation Psychology, 1978 2018

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Stumbling in Their Shoes: Disability Simulations Reduce Judged Capabilities of Disabled People Arielle M. Silverman, Jason D. Gwinn & Leaf van Boven Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2014 2018

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Disability Simulations: Logical, Methodological and Ethical Issues Gary Kiger, Department of Sociology, Utah State University Disability, Handicap & Society, 1992 2018

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“What we want to change are not people's attitudes, but their behaviors. Will a disability simulation change how participants interact with persons with disabilities in the future? This is the central question and it is a difficult problem to address in research directed toward measuring a simulation’s effectiveness.“ Disability Simulations: Logical, Methodological and Ethical Issues Gary Kiger Disability, Handicap & Society, 1992 2018

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“Additionally, going on a ‘blind walk’ for an hour does not give a participant the ‘feel’ for experiences of discrimination, rejection, or pity that might be directed toward someone who is visually impaired.“ Disability Simulations: Logical, Methodological and Ethical Issues Gary Kiger Disability, Handicap & Society, 1992 2018

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Crip for a Day: The Unintended Negative Consequences of Disability Simulations Michelle R. Nario-Redmond, Dobromir Gospodinov, and Angela Cobb Hiram College Rehabilitation Psychology, 2017 2018

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“Simulating disabilities promotes distress and fails to improve attitudes toward disabled people, undermining efforts to improve integration even while participants report more empathetic concern and ‘understanding of what the disability experience is like.’“ Crip for a Day: The Unintended Negative Consequences of Disability Simulations Michelle R. Nario-Redmond, Dobromir Gospodinov, and Angela Cobb Rehabilitation Psychology, 2017 2018

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Conclusion On the effectiveness of disability simulations 2018

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Thank you. 2018